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2019何凯文考研英语每日一句43-49

文都网校考研 2019-07-11 15:12:39

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何凯文老师2019考研英语每日一句已经开始更新。

接下来的日子里,何凯文老师会时不时的普及一些重要的新闻线索,2019年考研英语阅读将会展示很多原文重现!用以提高考研英语阅读能力。每日一句的目标——涨知识,学语言,提品味! !

小编将每周日发布上周六至本周五每日一句汇总,方便大家整理学习。敬请关注……


何凯文考研英语每日一句 第43句

今天的句子:

That same year, a Journal of Educational Psychology paper found no relationship between the study subjects’ learning-style preference (visual or auditory) and their performance on reading- or listening-comprehension tests. Instead, the visual learners performed best on all kinds of tests. Therefore, the authors concluded, teachers should stop trying to gear some lessons toward “auditory learners.” “Educators may actually be doing a disservice to auditory learners by continually accommodating their auditory learning style,” they wrote, “rather than focusing on strengthening their visual word skills.”

思考题:
which way is a better way to learn according to the text?
visual or auditory


词汇突破:


1.preference 偏好
2.visual 视觉的
3.auditory 听觉的
4.performance 表现;成绩
5.disservice 伤害;帮倒忙
6.accommodate 迁就;使…适应;照顾,提供食宿
 
第一句:
That same year, a Journal of Educational Psychology paper found no relationship between the study subjects’ learning-style preference (visual or auditory) and their performance on reading- or listening-comprehension tests.

主干识别:
a Journal of Educational Psychology paper found no relationship between A and B.  一篇论文发现A和B没有关系/不相关
A=the study subjects’ learning-style preference (visual or auditory)
B= their performance on reading- or listening-comprehension tests
参考译文:同年,教育心理学期刊的一篇论文发现实验对象的学习风格偏向(视觉或听觉)与他们的阅读或听力理解测试成绩并不相关。

第二句:
Instead, the visual learners performed best on all kinds of tests.
记住:
Instead =however (转折)
Instead of = not (否定)
参考译文:相反,视觉学习者在所有的测试中都是表现最好的。


第三句:
Therefore, the authors concluded, teachers should stop trying to gear some lessons toward “auditory learners.”
注意:
gear 齿轮;挂档 引申为:使 适合,准备好
这里加上介词toward 可译为:使课程偏向适合听觉学习者,因为太长太绕,精简成 使课程偏向听觉学习者 英语里toward是介词必须配合一个实义动词,但汉语里的偏向,本身就可以独当一面,没必要画蛇添足。
(而且大家可以看到逗号的使用也是很随意的,尤其是新闻英语中更是如此,不必纠结,读懂就好。)
参考译文:因此作者们总结道,老师们应该停止使课程偏向‘听觉学习者’的尝试。

第四句:
 “Educators may actually be doing a disservice to auditory learners by continually accommodating their auditory learning style,” they wrote, “rather than focusing on strengthening their visual word skills.”
主干识别:
they wrote 主谓做插入语;
其他成分:
宾语从句主干:
Educators may actually be doing a disservice to auditory learners
状语:
1)by accommodating... (通过)迁就/照顾…
2)rather than strengthening...而不是加强…

参考译文:他们写道,“教育者持续迁就听觉学习者的学习风格,而不是加强他们的视觉文字技能,实际会对他们造成伤害。”

思考题:
which way is a better way to learn according to the text?
visual or auditory

VISUAL
这篇文章这样写道:
为什么有些人善于一目十行,快速记忆所有考点,而有些人则更喜欢听课听讲,面对老师的阅读作业却一身身地出冷汗,怵得要命?很久以来,似乎有一种共识,即每个人的学习风格不同,有视觉型的,也有听觉型的,所以教育需要改革,兼顾这些差异。然而研究者发现,的确每个人处理知识的方式或有不同,但并不是决定性的。自视属于听觉型的学习者即使用适合听觉的教育方法,成绩也不会提升多少。反而是自视为视觉型的学习者,考试水平总是略高一筹。难道说他们天生智商高一点?大错特错,关键在于专注力。听是被动的,看是主动的,如果有人听任何书都能像看书一样付出那么大的专注力,也许测试时就不会那么明显的差异。但不可能,人的本性好逸恶劳,听书时走神的成本太低,简直无法拒绝。即使你没听进去,也一样可以欺骗自己完成了作业。但要是看书,你一走神,就翻不了一页书。

(当然这个文章的观点也是一家之言,说不定就是有学习类型的差异,不过不管怎么类型也得好好专注!这是王道!)

这篇文章的链接:https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2018/04/the-myth-of-learning-styles/557687/



何凯文考研英语每日一句 第44句

今天的句子:
人工智能用于医学,最有可能取得巨大突破的领域就是诊断,来看一下,发展到那个阶段了吧。这是3月刊自然杂志上的文章,链接打不开,我就不加链接了,大家就先看今天的句子后续我们再补充。
Researchers conclude that an algorithm is successful if it can identify a particular condition from such images as effectively as can pathologists and radiologists. But that alone does not mean the AI diagnostic is ready for the clinic.
思考题:
The success of an algorithm means AI diagnostic’s triumph in the clinic.
词汇突破:
1.algorithm 算法
2. identify 确定
3. condition 病情(没想到有这个意思吧!)
4. pathologists and radiologists 
(看到-ist结尾就应该知道是人了吧!病理医生和放射科医生)
5. AI diagnostic 人工智能诊断程序
6. the clinic 临床应用
第一句:
Researchers conclude that an algorithm is successful if it can identify a particular condition from such images as effectively as can pathologists and radiologists. 
主干识别
Researchers conclude that…
切分成分:
1.an algorithm is successful
宾语从句主干
2. if it can identify a particular condition from such images
状语从句
3. as effectively as can pathologists and radiologists
(as 引导的同级比较状语从句)
as can pathologists and radiologists= as pathologists and radiologists can (identify)
这个语序的调整其实你早就会,只是你忘了than引导的从句也是这样用的:
I can earn more money than can he. 
=I can earn more money than he can earn. 
我挣钱比他多;
参考译文:研究者总结道,如果人工智能算法能和病理医生和放射科医师一样,在此类图片中有效识别特定疾患,这样的算法就算成功。
第二句:

But that alone does not mean the AI diagnostic is ready for the clinic.
但单靠这点并不意味着人工智能诊断已经达到临床水平。
但单靠这点不意味着人工智能诊断可以用于临床。
思考题:
The success of an algorithm means AI diagnostic’s triumph in the clinic.
所以这个说法就是不对的。



何凯文考研英语每日一句 第45句

今天的句子:

Disney, in other words, is constructing what looks to be a worthy rival to Netflix. Will this be enough to inaugurate another century of dominance? Based on its public statements and on private conversations I’ve had with Disney executives, the company’s most likely path forward is to nurture Disneyflix gradually, in an effort to ease the decline of pay-TV and film—the equivalent of saving its flooding fortress by plugging each new leak as it springs.
思考题:
What is, for Disney, the most potential way to rebuild its dominance?
词汇突破:
1. rival 竞争对手: worthy rival (配的上的/能匹敌的对手)
2. inaugurate 开启,开创
3. executives 管理层,执行官
4. the equivalent of  对等于,相当于,表示比喻和解释
5. flooding fortress 被洪水围困的城堡
6. plugging each new leak 堵上新漏洞
7.  固定搭配:
spring a 'leak  (of a boat or container 船舶或容器) 
   英文解释:(to develop a hole through which water or another liquid can pass)
   出现裂缝;开裂漏水
搭配: Plug the new leak 
8. Netflix :奈飞公司(类似于中国的爱奇艺这样的流媒体视频网站)
9. in an effort to= in order to 
第一句:
Disney, in other words, is constructing what looks to be a worthy rival to Netflix.
换言之,迪士尼正在打造看似能与奈飞匹敌的流媒体平台。
第二句:
Will this be enough to inaugurate another century of dominance?
这足以开启下个主导市场的百年么?
第三句:
Based on its public statements and on private conversations I’ve had with Disney executives, the company’s most likely path forward is to nurture Disneyflix gradually, in an effort to ease the decline of pay-TV and film—the equivalent of saving its flooding fortress by plugging each new leak as it springs.
(读句子最佳的状态不是语法分析,而是边读边断句,切分完毕后能直接调序译为中文,我们的阅读任务就完成了,只有在依然不懂得时候再做语法分析。)
切分:
1. Based on its public statements and on private conversations( I’ve had with Disney executives,)
根据迪士尼公开声明和我与迪士尼管理层的私下交谈来看,
注意:你要确定its 的指代,同时(I’ve had with Disney executives)放到private conversations前;
2. the company’s most likely path forward is to nurture Disneyflix gradually
迪士尼最可能的前进之路是逐渐培育Disneyflix
Forward(后置定语)调序到path前;
3. in an effort to ease the decline of pay-TV and film—
以缓解付费电视和电影衰落,
4. the equivalent of saving its flooding fortress/ by plugging each new leak/ as it springs.
就像拯救洪水围困的城堡/
by plugging each new leak/ as it springs (new leaks)
(新闻英语为了简洁常会省略一些重复部分)
当出现新的漏缝就堵上这个新的漏缝
=一出现新的漏缝就堵上
参考译文: 根据迪士尼公开声明和我与迪士尼管理层的私下交谈来看,迪士尼最可能的前进之路是逐步培育Disneyflix,以缓解付费电视和电影衰落, 一出现新的漏缝就堵上。

多选,我们看看大家的复习到哪里了。



何凯文考研英语每日一句 第46句

美国医疗系统问题很多,其中,各种手续非常繁琐,大量的人力和物力被消耗到了这些繁文缛节(Red tape)上面了。

今天的句子:

Some clinics employ more clerks than providers—not just to generate invoices but to send along the patient information insurers need to approve treatments, to dispute denied payments, and on and on. For every $1 billion in revenue, the healthcare system employs the equivalent of 770 full-time people to settle the bills.

思考题:

why clinics employ so many clerks?
词汇突破:
1.clinics 诊所
2.providers这个语境指医疗的提供者医护人员
 Clerks 这里的clerks 指的是行政人员
3.along 还有,一起(加强语气)Will you come along? 
 Send along (这里的along 没有实际含义) = send;
 Come on in= come in 是一个道理;  
4. dispute 争议,提出异议
5. to settle the bills 完成结算
6. the equivalent of 相当于,表示比喻
7. not just = not only 
第一句:
Some clinics employ more clerks than providers—not just to generate invoices but to send along the patient information insurers need to approve treatments, to dispute denied payments, and on and on.
主干识别:
Some clinics employ more clerks than providers
切分成分:
  状语:

1.not just to generate invoices 
2.but to send along the patient information (insurers need to approve treatments), 
 括号里是省略了that 的定语从句:
Insurers need the patient information to approve treatments 
3.to dispute denied payments,
(讨要拒付的医疗费)这里的dispute就是“为了…而争论”=讨要
4. and on and on.
等等;
参考译文:有些诊所雇佣的行政人员比医护人员还要多,他们不仅要开发票,还要发送保险公司需要用来审批治疗方案的病人信息,还要讨要拒付的医疗费用, 等等一系列的事情。
第二句:
For every $1 billion in revenue, the healthcare system employs the equivalent of 770 full-time people to settle the bills.
主干识别:
the healthcare system employs the equivalent of 770 full-time people 
切分成分:
1.to settle the bills. 状语
2. For every $1 billion in revenue, 状语
参考译文:医疗系统每收入10亿美元,就需要雇佣“相当于770位全职员工的劳动力”来完成结算工作。
思考题答案:
why clinics employ so many clerks?
not just to generate invoices but to send along the patient information insurers need to approve treatments, to dispute denied payments, and on and on.
(They have to deal with much red tape.)



何凯文考研英语每日一句 第47句

今天的句子:
Willingham explained that whether or not readers understand a text depends far more on how much background knowledge and vocabulary they have relating to the topic than on how much they’ve practiced comprehension skills. That’s because writers leave out a lot of information that they assume readers will know. If they put all the information in, their writing would be tedious.
词汇突破:
1.A depend far more on B than on C: A更多的取决于B而不是C
2.tedious 乏味,冗长
第一句:
Willingham explained that whether or not readers understand a text depends far more on how much background knowledge and vocabulary they have relating to the topic than on how much they’ve practiced comprehension skills.
切分:
1.Willingham explained that /
2.whether or not readers understand a text depends far more on
3. they have how much background knowledge and vocabulary(调序)
4.(relating to the topic 充当background knowledge and vocabulary的定语)
5.than on how much they’ve practiced comprehension skills.
参考译文:威林厄姆解释说,读者是否理解一篇文章,更多地取决于他们有多少与主题相关的背景知识和词汇,而不是他们训练了多少理解能力。
第二句:
That’s because writers leave out a lot of information that they assume readers will know.
切分:
1.That’s because 
2.writers leave out a lot of information
3.that they assume readers will know.(定语从句)
参考译文:这是因为作者遗漏了很多他们认为读者会知道的信息。
第三句:
If they put all the information in, their writing would be tedious.
切分:
1.If they put all the information in, 
2.their writing would be tedious.
参考译文:如果他们把所有的信息都放进去,他们的写作就会很乏味。
后续:(有抄写每日一句习惯的同学,不用抄了)
But if readers can’t supply the missing information, they have a hard time making sense of the text. If students arrive at high school without knowing who won the Civil War they’ll have a hard time understanding a textbook passage about Reconstruction.
词汇突破:
1. make sense of: 理解
2. have hard time doing sth: 做…有困难
参考译文:但是如果读者不能自行补充缺失的信息,他们就很难理解文章的意思。如果学生们上高中时不知道谁赢得了内战,他们将很难理解教科书中关于重建的章节。

A sixth-grader at one of his schools was frustrated that a passage on a reading test she’d taken kept repeating a word she didn’t understand: roog-bye. The unfamiliar word made it hard for her to understand the passage.
参考译文:他学校的六年级学生很沮丧,因为她参加的一次阅读测试中的一个段落不断重复一个她不理解的单词:roog-bye。这个不熟悉的词使她很难理解这篇文章。



何凯文考研英语每日一句 第48句

今天的句子:
Consuming culture should be about delight and surprise; it should be comforting and unsettling; it should be thought-provoking and create space for self-reflection. It need not be all of these things at once, but a balanced diet helps us understand each other across social divides and make sense of the human experience. Just as we should resist outsourcing our ethical decisions to machines, we should not allow them to make cultural ones for us either. Encouraging us to make choices about cultural consumption based on path dependency, as the Netflix algorithm does, is not a neutral phenomenon.
思考题:
What is author's attitude towards Netflix algorithm?
(A) critical 
(B) neutral
(C) supportive 
(D) amazing

第一句:
Consuming culture should be about delight and surprise; it should be comforting and unsettling; it should be thought-provoking and create space for self-reflection. 
词汇突破:
1. Consuming culture 文化消费
2. comforting and unsettling 欣慰或者不安
3. thought-provoking 发人深省
4. self-reflection 自我反思
参考译文:文化消费应该是令人愉悦和惊奇的;它应该是令人欣慰或者感到不安的;它应该是发人深省的,并为自我反思创造空间。
第二句:
It need not be all of these things at once, but a balanced diet helps us understand each other( across social divides状语) and make sense of the human experience.
词汇突破:
1.a balanced diet (本意:均衡的膳食;本句含义:什么情绪都得有)
2.across social divides 跨越社会鸿沟
3. make sense of 理解,了解
(语序基本一致,状语的位置调一下就好了。然后可以a balanced diet可以独立成句。)
参考译文:它不需要一次完成所有这些事情,但这些体验都得有,这样将有助于我们跨越社会鸿沟了解彼此,并理解人类的经验。
第三句:
Just as we should resist outsourcing our ethical decisions to machines, we should not allow them to make cultural ones for us either. 
词汇突破:
1. outsource: 外包,交外办理
2. ethical 道德上的
3. cultural ones 这里的ones指代decisions;
4. not either = neither
5.just as= 正如
6.resisit doing sth: 拒绝做某事
(语序一致,不用分析)
参考译文:正如我们应该拒绝将我们的道德决定外包给机器一样,我们也不应该允许他们为我们做出文化决定。

第四句:
Encouraging us to make choices about cultural consumption based on path dependency, as the Netflix algorithm does, is not a neutral phenomenon.

词汇突破:
1.Neutral  中立的,不带有倾向性的;
 注意:在考研的态度题中出题人常会默认这个词是indifferent的同义词; 
会认为这个词与objective是有区别的;objective是客观的,公正的;
而neutral就是完全不关心的意思;
  2. based on path dependency 根据路径依赖 
3. the Netflix algorithm 奈飞(网飞)公司的算法 
 (考研翻译一般不会考“奈飞”这种新的专有名词的翻译,所以不用纠结。)
参考译文:鼓励我们根据路径依赖进行文化消费的选择,就像Netflix算法所做的那样,不是一个中立的现象。
(这里说的路径依赖简单说就是,你看快手或者抖音,系统会根据你的之前看过的内容主动给你推送你喜欢的小视频,这样其实就是机器在干预我们的文化消费了。)
第三句说了,我们也不应该允许机器(machines= algorithm)为我们做出文化决定。也就是作者认为:机器(人工智能,算法)应该保持中立。
第四句又说了奈飞公司的算法这样做就不是中立的现象,所以作者对于奈飞公司的算法是持有批判(critical)态度的!思考题答案A



2019何凯文考研英语每日一句 第49句

今天的句子:
By filming the reactions and reviewing the videos frame by frame, we began to realize that the startle reflex might be an evolutionary point of origin for many of our most common human emotional expressions.

思考题:

There is a strong correlation between filming and our emotional expressions.
主干识别:
we began to realize that
切分成分:
状语一:
By filming the reactions and 
(Film:拍摄)
状语二:
reviewing the videos frame by frame,
(frame: 一帧一帧)
宾语从句:
the startle reflex might be an evolutionary point( of origin 定语1) for many of our most common human emotional expressions(定语或者状语).
(startle relext:惊吓反应)
evolutionary point of origin:进化起点
作为定语翻译:
惊吓反射可能是我们许多最常见的人类情感表情的进化起点。
作为状语翻译:
对于许多最常见的人类情感表情而言,惊吓反射可能是一个进化起点。

背景:
情感表情(emotional expression)是人类作为灵长类动物的象征,我们会笑,会哭,会笑哭,会狡猾的笑,会有满足的表情等等。进化起点在这里的意思就是说:人类情感表情(emotional expression),都是从惊吓的表情开始的。然后才有了其他的情绪表情。后面就围绕人类的表情继续展开写。
参考文译文:通过拍摄反应,并逐帧回顾视频,我们开始意识到惊吓反射可能是我们许多最常见的人类情感表达的进化起点。
思考题:
There is a strong correlation between filming and our emotional expressions.
(我们的情感表情和拍摄之前有强烈的联系。)
这就是考研出题人常用的干扰手法,把文章出现过得词,胡乱的拼凑在一起。
这个说法明显在文中就是没有依据的,在做选择的时候是不选的。
后续(后续不用抄!看和欣赏就可以了!这下是不是懂了。)
They say that the eyes are the windows to the soul. But the eyeballs themselves aren’t really the windows. If you could look at a pair of eyeballs minus the rest of the face, you’d only learn where the eyes are looking and how dilated the pupils are. For reading another person, it’s everything surrounding the eyes that matters the most. The windows to the soul are the eyelids that can narrow skeptically or open wide, the eyebrows that move and shape expressively, the sly wrinkles at the outer corners or on the bridge of the nose, the upward bunching of the cheeks—the many tensions and relaxations rioting around the center.
他们说眼睛是心灵的窗户。但眼球本身并不是真正的窗户。如果去掉脸部的其余部分,你只能看一双眼球,你就只能知道眼睛的位置以及瞳孔的扩大程度。对于了解另一个人来说,眼睛周围的东西才是最重要的。心灵之窗是眼皮,它能怀疑地缩小或打开,眉毛的运动和形状生动地成形,外角或鼻梁上的狡猾的皱纹,脸颊上的堆积——许多紧张和放松的气氛在中心蔓延。(这篇文章对于表情的描写真心棒!)



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